Surface prep, surface prep, surface prep.
1. Make sure the old gunk is totally cleaned off. Scrub if you have to.
2. Then, liberally rub with acetone. Not mineral spirits, or kerosene, or naphtha. Acetone. You don't want residue of any kind. Solvent alcohol will also work here, but my vote would be for acetone.
3. Then, apply a single drop of super glue/crazy glue/other cyanoacrylate adhesive to the bolt face, without concern for anyone's feelings.
4. Apply foamy with a carefree attitude.
5. Sip your favorite beverage while getting in touch with your inner child. Takes only a few seconds.
6. Shoot umpteen cases of paint at your enemies while contemplating the inexplicable popularity of kissy-face vampire movies. Takes years.
Tom Kaye recommends cyanoacrylate, and for good reason: it's cheap, simple, fast, and effective.
Gorilla glue also works, as will a number of epoxies. But not nearly as well, or as simply, or as quickly, or as cheaply. Few people take the time to learn what adhesives work best for what materials, and conditions. Also, lots of folk fail to appreciate the importance of surface prep.
In short, crazy/super glue is very good for joining plastics (or synthetic rubber) to metals. Which is what you need to do here.
Give it a try, and see if it doesn't do the trick.